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Hadith (حديث):
Prophet’s commentary on Quran.

Halal (حلال):
That which is acceptable. The concept of halal has spiritual implication. In Islam there are activities, professions, contracts and transactions which are explicitly prohibited (haram) by the Qur'an or the Sunnah. Barring them, all other activities, professions, contracts, and transactions etc. are halal. This is one of the distinctive features of Islamic economics vis-a-vis Western economics where no such concept exists. In Western economics, all activities are judged on the touchstone of economic utility. In Islamic economics, other factors, mostly spiritual and moral are also involved. An activity may be economically sound but may not be allowed in the Islamic society if it is not permitted by the Shari'ah.

Haj (الحج):
Hajj means pilgrimage to Mecca and other holy places. Hajj, the fifth pillar of Islam, is a duty on every Muslim who is financially and physically able to carry it out, at least once in his lifetime. There is a specific period for Hajj, namely one week from the 8th day of the Islamic month of Dhul Hijjah to the 13th day of that month in the Islamic lunar calendar.

Hanifete laws:
Islamic school of law founded by Imam Abu Hanifa. Followers of this school are known as Hanafis.

Hawala (حوالة):
Literally : bill of exchange, promissory note, cheque or draft. Technically, a debtor passes on the responsibility of payment of his debt to a third party who owes the former a debt. Thus the responsibility of payment is ultimately shifted to a third party. Hawala is a mechanism for settling international accounts, by book transfers. This obviates, to a large extent, the necessity of physical transfer of cash. The term was also used historically in public finance during the Abbaside period to refer to cases where the state treasury could not meet the claims presented to it and it directed the claimants to occupy a certain region for a specified period of time and procure their claims themselves by taxing the people. This method was also known as ‘Tasabbub’. The taxes collected and transmitted to the central treasury were known as ‘Mahmul’, while those assigned to the claimants were known as ‘Musabbub’.


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